There are 3 clinical trials
There is substantial research on the effects of physical exercise on cognitive functions. However, less attention has been paid on the requirements of training intensity and length to enhance cognitive abilities in the elderly. To the investigators knowledge no studies have evaluated the effects of extensive endurance exercise training on cognitive functions by studying elderly marathon runners and bicyclists. On the basis of the scientific literature published so far it is not known whether the beneficial impact of endurance exercise training depends on the intensity of training. The investigators therefore designed a cohort study with adequate power in order to evaluate the effects of intensive endurance exercise training on cognition. This trial, an Austrian prospective cohort study in cognitive function of elderly marathon-runners (APSOEM) is being conducted and will compare neuropsychological performance outcomes of elderly marathon runners or bicyclists with controls matched concerning age, education years, occupation, and verbal intelligence.
For this, pre-designed TaqMan SNP-Genotyping assays to distinguish the ApoE ε4 allele from ε2 and ε3 at amino acid position 112 (ApoE rs429358, Assay ID C_3084793_20, Applied Biosystems) and the ApoE ε2 allele from ε3 and ε4 at amino acid position 158 (rs7412, Assay ID C_904973_10, Applied Biosystems) were purchased.
Description: Hypothesis will be tested at the second follow-up examinations.Measure: the Proportion of Subjects, Who Will Develop Mild Cognitive Impairment Time: 10 years
Description: The following self rating scales were used: WHO-5 Quality of Life Assessment (Braeher, E., Muehlan, H., Albani, C., & Schmidt, S. (2007). Testing and standardization of the German version of the EUROHIS-QOL and WHO-5 quality-of life-indices. Diagnostica, 53(2), 83-96.). Range: 0 - 25, higher scores indicate better quality of life.Measure: Self Rating by Questionnaires Time: Baseline and 5 years
The primary aim of this study is to determine whether the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of barley b- glucan varied as function of molecular weight (MW) and the total daily amount consumed. Our second aim is to investigate the mechanism responsible for the action, specifically, whether β-glucan lowers circulating cholesterol concentration via inhibiting cholesterol absorption and synthesis. Thirdly, we aim to determine if any gene-diet interactions are associated with cholesterol lowering by barley β-glucan. In addition, we aim to investigate the alteration of the gut microbiota after β-glucan consumption and the correlation between the altered gut microbiota and cardiovascular disease risk factors.
The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs3808607 of CYP7A1 gene, rs429358 and rs7412 of APOE gene, and their associations with different blood lipid responses to beta-glucan interventions will be determined.. Changes in Body Weight and Waist Circumference(WC).
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs3808607 of gene CYP7A1and rs429358 and rs7412 will be determined byTaqMan® SNP Genotyping assay following the manufacturer's protocol.
Description: Fasted total cholesterol concentration will be measured using the automated enzymatic methods.Measure: Changs in Total Cholesterol Time: Beginning and end of each phase
Description: Serum LDL cholesterol will be estimated using the Friedewald equation.Measure: Changes in LDL Cholesterol Time: Beginning and end of each phase
Description: The rate of cholesterol absorption and synthesis will be measured in each intervention phase using single stable isotope labelling technique.Measure: Cholesterol Absorption/Synthesis Time: End of each phase
Description: The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs3808607 of CYP7A1 gene, rs429358 and rs7412 of APOE gene, and their associations with different blood lipid responses to beta-glucan interventions will be determined.Measure: Potential Gene-nutrient Interactions: CYP7A1 and APOE Time: Once for each participant
Description: Body weight will be monitored every day when subject visits the Richardson Centre. Waist circumference will be measured at the beginning and end of each study phase.Measure: Changes in Body Weight and Waist Circumference(WC) Time: Every day for body weight; beginning and end of each phase for WC
Raised blood cholesterol (also referred to as blood LDL-cholesterol) is a major risk factor for developing heart disease. Dietary saturated fat is recognised as the main dietary component responsible for raising blood LDL-cholesterol, and reducing its intake has been the mainstay of dietary guidelines for the prevention of heart disease for over 30 years. However, there is very little evidence for a direct link between the intake of saturated fat and risk of dying from heart disease. One explanation for this, is that the link between saturated fat intake and heart disease is not a direct one, but relies heavily on the ability of saturated fat to raise blood LDL-cholesterol levels. This LDL cholesterol-raising effect of saturated fat is complex, and highly variable between individuals because of differences in the metabolism of dietary fat and cholesterol between people. The main aim of this study is to measure the amount of variation in blood LDL-cholesterol in 150 healthy volunteers (75 at the University of Surrey and 75 at the University of Reading) in response to lowering the amount of saturated fat in the diet to the level recommended by the government for the prevention of heart disease. This collaborative project between the Universities of Reading, Surrey and Imperial ('RISSCI-1 Blood Cholesterol Response Study') will permit identification of two subgroups of men who show either a high or low LDL-cholesterol response to a reduction in dietary saturated intake. These participants (n=36) will be provided with an opportunity to participate in a similar follow-up study ('RISSCI-2') that will also take place at the University of Surrey and Reading. In this follow-up study, the participants will be asked to repeat a similar study protocol as for RISSCI-1, but undergo more detailed measurements to determine how saturated fat is metabolised in the body.
rs429358 and rs7412), APOA-I (e.g.
Description: Polymorphic genes with potential influence on the serum LDL response to dietary saturated fat, e.g.: ATP-binding cassette proteins (cholesterol efflux proteins) ABCG5 (e.g. C1950G) ABCG8 (e.g. D19H, C1895T), functional polymorphisms in the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and bile acid transporters (e.g. solute carrier organics anion 1B1). Fatty acid desaturases (FADS1 and FADS2). The patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein (PNPLA3) (e.g. rs738409 C/G), eNOS. Lipid/cholesterol homeostasis: serum apolipoprotein genes: APOE (ε2,ε3,ε4 e.g. rs429358 and rs7412), APOA-I (e.g. -75G/A), APOA4 (e.g. 360-2), APOA5 (e.g. -113/T>:c), APOCIII, APOB (e.g. -516C/T). Lipase genes: (e.g. LPL, HL, MGLL). Lipoprotein receptor genes (e.g. pvu11 in the LDL receptor), lipid transfer proteins (e.g. CETP e.g Taq1B, MTP), and other polymorphic genes related to the absorption and metabolism of dietary fat and regulation of lipid/cholesterol homeostasis.Measure: Other relevant genes involved in the absorption and metabolism of dietary fat Time: Baseline
Description: Analyses conducted by Imperial College LondonMeasure: Metabolomic analysis for the determination of the low molecular weight metabolite profiles in the biological fluids Time: Baseline, 4 weeks (after diet 1), 8 weeks (after diet 2)
Description: BMI will also be calculated (kg/ height in m^2)Measure: Weight Time: Baseline, 4 weeks (after diet 1), 8 weeks (after diet 2)
Description: Measured via pulse wave assessment using the Mobil-O-graph device.Measure: Fasting vascular stiffness Time: baseline, 4 weeks (after diet 1), 8 weeks (after diet 2)